Biology Agriculture Aquaculture Horticulture Postharvest Forestry Geography Environment Health

Vibrio cholerae in a historically cholera-free country

submitted by mpeipir 2 years and 6 months ago
We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel and macroalgae samples were collected close to, and distant from, sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. Vibrio cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland.

Topic: Biology

Add your comment

Please Login or Signup to leave a comment

Related stories

Anti-bacterial and anti-toxic immunity induced by a killed whole-cell-cholera toxin B subunit cholera vaccine is essential for protection against lethal bacterial infection in mouse pulmonary cholera model
submitted by chenida 1 year and 9 months ago - Topic: Health
The lack of appropriate animal model for studying protective immunity has limited vaccine development against cholera. Here, we demonstrate a pulmonary cholera model conferred by intranasal administration of mice with live Vibrio cholerae. The bacterial components, but not cholera toxin, caused lethal and acute pneumonia by inducing massive inflammation. Intranasal immunization with Dukoral, co...

Calcium binding by the PKD1 domain regulates interdomain flexibility in Vibrio cholerae metalloprotease PrtV
submitted by libareas 1 year and 2 months ago - Topic: Biology
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, releases several virulence factors including secreted proteases when it infects its host. These factors attack host cell proteins and break down tissue barriers and cellular matrix components such as collagen, laminin, fibronectin, keratin, elastin, and they induce necrotic tissue damage. The secreted protease PrtV constitutes one virulence facto...

Detection of Vibrio cholerae in Environmental Waters Including Drinking Water Reservoirs of Azerbaijan
submitted by sagota 2 years and 1 month ago - Topic: Biology
Cholera, a globally prevalent gastrointestinal disease, remains a persistent problem in many countries including the former Soviet republics of the Caucasus region where sporadic outbreaks occurred recently. Historically, this region has experienced cholera during every pandemic since 1816, however, no known comprehensive evaluation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in surface waters using mol...

Evolutionary Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a Single-Source Introduction to Haiti
submitted by mema238 1 year and 1 month ago - Topic: Biology
Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti t...

Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 classical biotype in 2012 in Iran
submitted by fvw64 11 months ago - Topic: Biology
Cholera outbreaks annually occur in many parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the biotype and genotype diversity of V. cholerae isolates from recent outbreak (2012) in Iran and to characterize the ctxB allelic sequence of isolates. The ctxB sequence of all isolates was analyzed and compared with the reference ctxB sequences for El Tor and classical biotypes in GenBank databas...

Simulation model on the potential use of Vibrio cholerae as a biological agent of terror and simulated economic impact in Nigeria
submitted by sakhonjon12 5 months ago - Topic: Health
A simulation model study was carried out on the use of V. cholerae as a bioweapon on the Nigerian population by a hypothetical terrorist group that starts by infecting people with live cultures of V. cholerae in water and food sources in Kano and then the rest of the country. The simulation was carried out for a simulated period of 3 months using the Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM...

The Vibrio cholerae VctPDGC System Transports Catechol Siderophores and a Siderophore-Free Iron Ligand
submitted by pallykario 3 years and 1 month ago - Topic: Biology
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron. It transports the catechol siderophores vibriobactin, which it synthesizes and secretes, and enterobactin. These siderophores are transported across the inner membrane by one of two periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporters, VctPDGC or ViuPDGC. We show here that one of these inner membrane transp...

Occurrence and distribution of plankton-associated and free-living toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in a tropical estuary of a cholera endemic zone
submitted by mnasawetz 2 years and 7 months ago - Topic: Biology
Cholera epidemics are thought to be influenced by changes in populations of estuarine Vibrio cholerae. We investigated the abundance and distribution of this bacterium, as “free-living” (2 μm) or zooplankton (>6 μm), in the Karnaphuli estuary of Bangladesh during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Cultivable Vibrio populations were ~12–14 colony forming units (CFU) ml−1 in the high saline...

Indigenous V. cholerae are pathogenic
submitted by stivarina2 1 year and 7 months ago - Topic: Biology
Of the 200+ serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, only O1 or O139 strains are reported to cause cholera, and mostly in endemic regions. Cholera outbreaks elsewhere are considered to be via importation of pathogenic strains. Using established animal models, we show that diverse V. cholerae strains indigenous to a non-endemic environment (Sydney, Australia), including non-O1/O139 serogroup strains, are ...

ToxR Recognizes a Direct Repeat Element in the toxT, ompU, ompT, and ctxA Promoters of Vibrio cholerae To Regulate Transcription
submitted by orreboso 1 year and 6 months ago - Topic: Health
ToxR facilitates TcpP-mediated activation of the toxT promoter in Vibrio cholerae, initiating a regulatory cascade that culminates in cholera toxin secretion and toxin coregulated pilus expression. ToxR binds a region from –104 to –68 of the toxT promoter, from which ToxR recruits TcpP to the TcpP-binding site from –53 to –38. To precisely define the ToxR-binding site wi...