Biology Agriculture Aquaculture Horticulture Postharvest Forestry Geography Environment Health

Soil fungal distribution and functionality as affected by grazing and vegetation components of integrated crop–livestock agroecosystems

submitted by omolfansad 1 year and 4 months ago
Integrated crop and livestock (ICL) agroecosystems are characterized by a mixture of perennial or annual vegetation grazed by livestock and annual harvested crops. Compared to annual crops, ICLs hold the potential to enhance soil organic matter (OM) inputs, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, and water conservation. Soil fungi play an essential role in the transformation of OM and nutrients and soil structure stabilization; however their specific role in OM transformations in ICL agroecosystems has not been studied. This study evaluated mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungal populations (via fatty acid methyl ester profiles; FAME) and saprophytic fungal functionality (via FungiLog analysis) under two ICL agroecosystems and a continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) system in the Southern High Plains of the U.S. The first ICL system included non-irrigated perennial native grasses, an annual cotton and foxtail millet (Setaria italica) rotation and deficit-irrigated ‘WW-B. Dahl’ old world bluestem (Bothriochloa bladhii; OWB). The second ICL agroecosystem consisted of deficit-irrigated OWB and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). The effect of grazing by cattle was evaluated via grazing exclusion areas. Abundance of saprophytic fungal FAMEs (10–26% of total FAMEs) and mycorrhizal FAMEs (2–24% of total FAMEs) were higher under ICLs compared to the continuous-cotton system at 0–5cm. Overall, vegetation impacted the distribution of the fungal FAME markers, whereas the fungal saprophytic functionality was more sensitive to grazing. Perennial vegetation of ICLs was associated with an increase in fungal markers (saprophytic and mycorrhizal) as well as increased soil OM content. Greater utilization of multiple C sources and increased saprophytic fungal functional indices were found under cotton, non-grazed perennial vegetation (with exception of bermudagrass) and the rotation under millet. Among the grazed perennial vegetation, bermudagrass showed the highest fungal FAMEs abundance and functional diversity values. These fungal improvements were also reflected in the highest OM content under this grass, potentially indicating improved sustainability under the OWB and bermudagrass agroecosystem. Study evaluated vegetation type and grazing impacts on soil fungal dynamics. FAME and FungiLog assessed fungal groups and saprophytic activity, respectively. Vegetation impacted fungal distribution whereas grazing affected functionality. Perennial-based systems improve sustainability with increased SOM and fungal abundance. Grazing reduced saprophytic fungal capability for C utilization.

Topic: Biology

Add your comment

Please Login or Signup to leave a comment

Related stories

Organic carbon dynamics and soil stability in five semiarid agroecosystems
submitted by eyoda86 9 months ago - Topic: Agriculture
Interest in integrated crop-livestock agroecosystems (ICL) has increased due to their versatility in management options, potential to offset increasing levels of atmospheric C and enhanced agronomic and ecosystem sustainability. Identifying agroecosystems that have the greatest potential for C sequestration requires an understanding of soil organic C distribution within aggregate fractions. Six...

The match between microbial community structure and soil properties is modulated by land use types and sample origin within an integrated agroecosystem
submitted by loeloempix 19 hours ago - Topic: Agriculture
It is of global concern to adopt measures to mitigate land degradation caused by agricultural production systems. One of the strategies proposed is to replace degraded pastures with agrosilvopastoral systems which integrate three different land-use types: crop production, livestock pasture and forestry plantation (denoted iCLF). However, little is known about the differences between iCLF and ot...

Pasture grazing intensity and presence or absence of cattle dung input and its relationships to soybean nutrition and yield in integrated crop–livestock systems under no-till
submitted by vectarvonrej 8 months ago - Topic: Agriculture
In integrated soybean–beef cattle systems, the pasture grazing intensity affects the grain crop performance in succession. In addition, the dung cattle input influences the soil nutrients distribution in the field affecting the grain crop yield. This experiment aims to evaluate the effects of winter pasture heights and cattle dung input in soybean crop performance in succession. Main soil mac...

Soil gaseous N2O and CH4 emissions and carbon pool due to integrated crop-livestock in a subtropical Ferralsol
submitted by eyoda86 10 months ago - Topic: Agriculture
We assessed the impact of integrated crop-livestock (CL), with silage maize (Zea mays L.) in summer and grazed annual-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in winter, and continuous crop (CC), with annual-ryegrass used only as cover-crop, on net greenhouse gas emission from soil (NetGHG-S) in a subtropical Ferralsol of a 3.5-year-old experiment in Brazil. Emissions from animal excreta in CL were e...

Impact of an integrated no-till crop–livestock system on phosphorus distribution, availability and stock
submitted by eyoda86 8 months ago - Topic: Agriculture
Biophysical and socio-economic improvements of farming systems have been obtained with integrated crop–livestock systems (ICLS). Grazing in ICLS under no-tillage conditions may alter soil phosphorus (P) dynamics, because of changes in P budgets and distribution of P forms. The need to understand impacts on P dynamics is important because they can modify soil quality and, consequently, have im...

Italian ryegrass establishment by self-seeding in integrated crop–livestock systems: Effects of grazing management and crop rotation strategies
submitted by vectarvonrej 3 months ago - Topic: Agriculture
We evaluated the re-establishment of an Italian ryegrass pasture by self-seeding on a no-till integrated crop–livestock systems (ICLS) in the southern region of Brazil. This work is part of a long-term experimental protocol initiated in 2003. We tested the effects of various management practices, such as summer crop systems (soybean vs. maize–soybean rotation), stocking methods (continuous ...

Soil-profile distribution of inorganic N during 6 years of integrated crop-livestock management
submitted by lokshmon 1 year and 1 month ago - Topic: Agriculture
Excessive accumulation of soil nitrate-N can threaten water and air quality. How integrated crop-livestock systems might influence soil-profile nitrate-N accumulation has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined soil nitrate-N accumulation during 6 years of evaluation of diverse cropping systems on a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia, USA. Of the total change in soil nitrate-N content that o...

Amelioration of soil acidity and soybean yield after surface lime reapplication to a long-term no-till integrated crop-livestock system under varying grazing intensities
submitted by lokshmon 4 days ago - Topic: Agriculture
An integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS), with summer grain cropping and winter grazing of cover crops, is an option for agricultural management in subtropical areas. Despite numerous studies evaluating ICLS, there have been limited investigations of soil acidity and lime application dynamics in such systems. Because grain producers resist introducing livestock into cultivation areas due to f...

Impact of grazing on soil properties and cotton yield in an integrated crop–livestock system
submitted by lokshmon 1 year and 2 months ago - Topic: Agriculture
The impact of integrating cattle into a sod-based crop rotation was evaluated to understand the short and long-term effects of winter grazing on soil properties and productivity in terms of cotton yield. The rotation consisted of two years of bahiagrass followed by a year each of peanut and cotton. Cattle grazed on oats/rye during the winter. The influence of grazing and irrigation on soil prop...

Nitrous oxide producing activity of diverse fungi from distinct agroecosystems
submitted by loeloempix 1 year and 1 month ago - Topic: Agriculture
Fungi represent a significant component of the soil microbial community and play critical ecological roles in carbon and nitrogen mediated processes. Therefore, fungi capable of nitrous oxide (N2O) production may have great implications to soil N2O emission. The primary objective of this research was to identify and characterize N2O-producing fungi in agricultural soil systems and determine the...