Biology Agriculture Aquaculture Horticulture Postharvest Forestry Geography Environment Health





Agriculture

Pathophysiology and clinical features of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction
submitted by pandhiiponkor 20 hours ago - Topic: Agriculture
Our understanding of the development and progression of equine pituitary pars intermedia (PI) dysfunction has expanded over the last decade, although much remains to be explained. Degeneration of the hypothalamic periventricular dopaminergic neurons results in disinhibition of the endocrine cells of the PI, the melanotropes. As a result, the PI enlarges, compressing the adjacent lobes, the pars...



Effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen ratios on the parasitic activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia on Meloidogyne incognita
submitted by safeo 21 hours ago - Topic: Agriculture
Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare and Gams is a biological control agent for control of root-knot nematodes. However, the efficiency of many biological control agents, including P. chlamydosporia, depends on soil conditions. An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen on the activity of P. chlamydosporia against Meloidogyne incognita (Kof...

Interactions between Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoids of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
submitted by safeo 21 hours ago - Topic: Agriculture
Liriomyza leafminer flies represent a serious threat to horticultural production in East Africa. Total field parasitism rates recorded in Kenya are below 5%, with the indigenous ectoparasitoid Diglyphus isaea Walker being one of the key parasitoid species. The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), in collaboration with the International Potato Centre (CIP), imported int...

Distribution and diversity of endophytes in seagrasses
submitted by sothesh 21 hours ago - Topic: Agriculture
The rhizome and leaf tissues of 10 seagrass species (seven of the family Cymodoceaceae and three of the family Hydrocharitaceae) collected along the coast of Tamilnadu state, southern India were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. A culture-based study revealed that the colonization frequency (CF%) of the endophytes was generally lower than that reported for terrestrial plants and th...

Do endophytic fungi grow through their hosts systemically?
submitted by sothesh 21 hours ago - Topic: Agriculture
Endophyte fungi are ubiquitous within vascular plants and recent evidence suggests that they have a number of effects on other organisms that attack those plants, such as insects and pathogens. Endophytes produce an array of metabolites in culture and it is possible that these fungi could be used in targeted programmes of application to plants, to provide a degree of pest protection. Such progr...



Effects of abomasal infusion of conjugated linoleic acids, Sterculia foetida oil, and fish oil on production performance and the extent of fatty acid Δ9-desaturation in dairy cows
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Sterculia foetida oil (STO), and fish oil (FO) on milk yield and composition, milk FA profile, Δ9-desaturation activity, and mammary expression of 2 isoforms of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD-1 and SCD-5) in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (69±13 d postpartum) were used in a do...

Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
Multiparous Holstein cows (n=61) were used to determine the effects of chromium propionate (Cr-Pro) supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE). After a 1-wk preliminary period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 63 d postpartum: (1) con...


Characteristics of student success in an undergraduate physiology and anatomy course
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
Several factors affect the success of students in college classes. The objective of this research was to determine what factors affect success of undergraduate students in an anatomy and physiology class. Data were collected from 602 students enrolled in the Agriculture and Life Sciences (ALS) 2304 Animal Physiology and Anatomy course from 2005 through 2012. The data set included 476 females (7...

Effects of different physical forms of wheat grain in corn-based starter on performance of young Holstein dairy calves
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of partially replacing corn with 2 forms of wheat grain on daily intake of starter feed, average daily gain, feed efficiency, rumen pH, fecal score, weaning weight, skeletal growth, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Thirty-two male and female Holstein dairy calves (n=8 calves per treatment) were used in a completely randomized b...


Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows dur...

High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether her...


Quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dorsal wall length, sole thickness, and rotation of the distal phalanx in the bovine claw using computed tomography
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 800 untrimmed claws (400 inner claws and 400 outer claws) of 200 pairs of bovine hindlimbs to investigate the relationships between dorsal wall length and sole thickness, and between dorsal wall length and the relative rotation angle of distal phalanx-to-sole surface (S-D angle). Sole thickness was 3.8 and 4.0mm at the apex of the inner claws and outer ...

Elevated concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations is associated with a shift in the diameter of milk fat globules and remodeling of their membranes
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
We examined the effects of concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations on milk-fat composition, with a specific focus on the structure of milk fat globules (MFG). Twenty-four Holstein cows, 153 d in milk, were assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a crossover design study. Treatments were (1) high-concentrate (65%), low-forage (35%; HCLF) diet and low-concentrate (35%), high-forage (65%; LCH...

Clinical disease and stage of lactation influence shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in mil...

A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle
submitted by joera 1 day ago - Topic: Agriculture
A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natura...