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Impacts of Benthic Coarse Particulate Organic Matter variations on Macroinvertebrate Density and Diversity in the Njoro River, A Kenyan Highland Stream
submitted by 11 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
An investigation to assess the relationship between coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and macroinvertebrate communities was undertaken in the Njoro River, Kenya during 2010. Significantly lower macroinvertebrate densities and diversities were observed in study sites with low Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM) content. The Mugo study site had the highest CPOM content and macroinvert...



The role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in optic disc and stalk morphogenesis
submitted by 22 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are important for embryonic development via the regulation of gradient formation and signaling of multiple growth factors and morphogens. Previous studies have shown that Bmp/Shh/Fgf signaling are required for the regionalization of the optic vesicle (OV) and for the closure of the optic fissure (OF), the disturbance of which underlie ocular anomalies such a...

The Drosophila chmp1 protein determines wing cell fate through regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling
submitted by 22 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Receptor down-regulation by the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway is critical for many cellular signaling events. MVB generation is mediated by the highly conserved ESCRT (0, I, II, and III) protein complexes. Chmp1 is an ESCRT-III component and a putative tumor suppressor in humans. However, published data on Chmp1 activity are conflicting and its role during tissue development is not well def...

Differential Requirement for PBP1a and PBP1b in In Vivo and In Vitro Fitness of Vibrio cholerae
submitted by 25 minutes ago - Topic: Health
We investigated the roles of the Vibrio cholerae high-molecular-weight bifunctional penicillin binding proteins, PBP1a and PBP1b, in the fitness of this enteric pathogen. Using a screen for synthetic lethality, we found that the V. cholerae PBP1a and PBP1b proteins, like their Escherichia coli homologues, are each essential in the absence of the other and in the absence of the other's putative ...

Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3 Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX Toxin Is an Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Essential for Virulence in Mice
submitted by 25 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Vibrio vulnificus is an environmental organism that causes both food-borne and wound infections with high morbidity and mortality in humans. The annual incidence and global distribution of infections associated with this pathogen are increasing with climate change. In the late 1990s, an outbreak of tilapia-associated wound infections in Israel was linked to a previously unrecognized variant of ...



Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Protection against Pneumococcal Carriage by Immunization with Lipidated Pneumococcal Proteins
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in children in developing nations. Polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines provide protection against both invasive disease and colonization, but their use in developing countries is limited by restricted serotype coverage and expense of manufacture. Using proteomic screens, we recently identified several...

Helminth-Induced Interleukin-4 Abrogates Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Activation-Associated Clearance of Bacterial Infection
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Helminth infections affect 1 billion people worldwide and render these individuals susceptible to bacterial coinfection through incompletely understood mechanisms. This includes urinary tract coinfection by bacteria and Schistosoma haematobium worms, the etiologic agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. To study the mechanisms of S. haematobium-bacterial urinary tract coinfections, we combined the...


Live Attenuated Mutants of Francisella tularensis Protect Rabbits against Aerosol Challenge with a Virulent Type A Strain
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of tularemia. No licensed vaccine is currently available for protection against tularemia, although an attenuated strain, dubbed the live vaccine strain (LVS), is given to at-risk laboratory personnel as an investigational new drug (IND). In an effort to develop a vaccine that offers better protection, recombinant attenua...

Interleukin-1 Receptor but Not Toll-Like Receptor 2 Is Essential for MyD88-Dependent Th17 Immunity to Coccidioides Infection
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing CD4+ T helper (Th17) cells have been shown to be essential for defense against pulmonary infection with Coccidioides species. However, we have just begun to identify the required pattern recognition receptors and understand the signal pathways that lead to Th17 cell activation after fungal infection. We previously reported that Card9–/– mice vaccin...


Comparative Genomics and Immunoinformatics Approach for the Identification of Vaccine Candidates for Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strains are major human food-borne pathogens, responsible for bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome worldwide. Thus far, there is no vaccine for humans against EHEC infections. In this study, a comparative genomics analysis was performed to identify EHEC-specific antigens useful as potential vaccines. The genes present in both EHEC EDL93...

Development of an Aotus nancymaae Model for Shigella Vaccine Immunogenicity and Efficacy Studies
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Several animal models exist to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate Shigella vaccines. The two most widely used nonprimate models for vaccine development include a murine pulmonary challenge model and a guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. Nonhuman primate models exhibit clinical features and gross and microscopic colonic lesions that mimic those induced in human s...


Expression of the Effector Protein IncD in Chlamydia trachomatis Mediates Recruitment of the Lipid Transfer Protein CERT and the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Resident Protein VAPB to the Inclusion Membrane [Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Int
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen responsible for ocular and genital infections. To establish its membrane-bound intracellular niche, the inclusion, C. trachomatis relies on a set of effector proteins that are injected into the host cells or inserted into the inclusion membrane. We previously proposed that insertion of the C. trachomatis effector protein IncD int...

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Mediated by Exopolysaccharide-Independent Biofilms
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is especially adept at forming surface-associated biofilms. P. aeruginosa causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) through biofilm formation on the surface of indwelling catheters. P. aeruginosa encodes three extracellular polysaccharides, PEL, PSL, and alginate, and utilizes the PEL and PSL polysaccharides to fo...

Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both th...

TolC-Dependent Modulation of Host Cell Death by the Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain
submitted by 26 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular, Gram-negative pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. We previously identified TolC as a virulence factor of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) and demonstrated that a tolC mutant exhibits increased cytotoxicity toward host cells and elicits increased proinflammatory responses compared to those of the wild-type (WT) strain. ...

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