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Estimation of species extinction: what are the consequences when total species number is unknown?
submitted by 12 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
The species–area relationship (SAR) is known to overestimate species extinction but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear to a great extent. Here, I show that when total species number in an area is unknown, the SAR model exaggerates the estimation of species extinction. It is proposed that to accurately estimate species extinction caused by habitat destruction, one of the principal prereq...



Effect of zirconia surface treatment on zirconia/veneer interfacial toughness evaluated by fracture mechanics method
submitted by 43 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the airborne-particle abrasion and liner application on the interfacial toughness between veneering porcelain and zirconia core by means of a fracture mechanics test. Beam-shaped zirconia specimens were sectioned and divided into 4 groups according to different surface treatments as follows: Group C (control): no treatment; Group L: applicatio...

Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from medellin, Colombia
submitted by 43 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Approximately 5% of all breast cancers can be attributed to a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The genetic component of breast cancer in Colombia has been, for the most part, studied on cases from the Bogota region. Five different founder mutations were in two studies of breast cancer patients in the Bogota region. It is important that the frequency of mutations be established among unselec...

Are Gray Wolves Endangered in the Northern Rocky Mountains? A Role for Social Science in Listing Determinations
submitted by 45 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Conservation scientists increasingly recognize the need to incorporate the social sciences into policy decisions. In practice, however, considerable challenges to integrating the social and natural sciences remain. In this article, we review the US Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) 2009 decision to remove the northern Rocky Mountain population of gray wolves from the federal list of endangered ...

Self-organization, Natural Selection, and Evolution: Cellular Hardware and Genetic Software
submitted by 46 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Self-organization is sometimes presented as an alternative to natural selection as the primary mechanism underlying the evolution of function in biological systems. Here we argue that although self-organization is one of selection's fundamental tools, selection itself is the creative force in evolution. The basic relationship between self-organization and natural selection is that the same self...



Caffeic acid phenyl ester prevents cadmium intoxication induced disturbances in erythrocyte indices and blood coagulability, hepatorenal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Here we investigated the protective role of caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) on erythrocyte indices and osmotic resistance, blood coagulation, hepato-renal function and antioxidant status in cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rats. Cd intoxication was induced by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of cadmium chloride (1mg/kg/day) for 21 days, and CAPE was daily given (10μmol/kg; i.p.) also for 21 days. At ...

Intranasal curcumin attenuates airway remodeling in murine model of chronic asthma
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Curcumin, phytochemical present in turmeric, rhizome of Curcuma longa, a known anti-inflammatory molecule with variety of pharmacological activities is found effective in murine model of chronic asthma characterized by structural alterations and airway remodeling. Here, we have investigated the effects of intranasal curcumin in chronic asthma where animals were exposed to allergen for longer ti...


Inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation by 5-(acetylamino)-4-oxo-6-phenyl-2-hexenoic acid methyl ester and 4-phenyl-butenoic acid decreases substance P-induced TNF-α upregulation in macrophages
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The interactions between the immune and nervous systems play an important role in immune and inflammatory conditions. Substance P (SP), the unidecapeptide RPKPQQFFGLM-NH2, is known to upregulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We report here that 5-(acetylamino)-4-oxo-6-phenyl-2-hexenoic acid methyl ester (AOPHA-Me) and 4-phenyl-3-butenoic ac...

Daphnetin attenuates microglial activation and proinflammatory factor production via multiple signaling pathways
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Daphnetin, a natural coumarin derivative, is known to display anti-inflammatory properties and has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. A novel finding suggested that daphnetin might have a neuroprotective effect in stressed mice, leading us to explore its role in the microglial inflammatory response, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. We found that the production of pro-inflam...


Immunomodulatory effects by oral contraceptives in normal and cholestatic female rats: Role of cytokines
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Oral contraceptives (OC) may cause intrahepatic cholestasis or increase a pre-established liver damage. OC effects on hepatic injury biochemical markers remain contradictory and the role of cytokines in those processes is fairly unknown. Two doses, simple or double, of the OC combination ethinylestradiol/norgestrel were administered during 14 or 28days to normal and cholestatic female rats. Liv...

Immunogenicity of anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) against tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ADAs were detected in 18 (9.8%) patients with RA and in 18 (10.2%) patients with AS of the 360 patients. Development of ADAs was significantly associated with treatment failure in RA pati...


Effects of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury
submitted by 47 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is used in inflammatory diseases but the use of immunoglobulin as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) has not been previously studied. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of of ALI. Therefore we examined the levels of TGF-β and lung inflammation scores in IVIG treated ALI models. Intratracheal lipopoly...

Newly derived GH43 gene from compost metagenome showing dual xylanase and cellulase activities
submitted by 52 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed from compost microbial communities that were collected from various farms throughout the Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The library was enriched in carboxymethylcellulose (CM-cellulose)—containing media prior to the screening of clones capable of degrading cellulosic materials. Two clones were selected for further subcloning and sequencing based on ...

Detection of K1 antigen of Escherichia coli rods isolated from pregnant women and neonates
submitted by 52 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
The K1 antigen is an important virulence determinant of Escherichia coli strains and has been shown to be associated particularly with neonatal meningitis, bacteraemia and septicaemia. Thus, its detection seems to be useful, especially in the case of E. coli strains isolated from pregnant women and newborns. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of the latex agglutination test (Pastore...

Evaluation of molecular markers for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis
submitted by 52 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) comprises a group of bacteria that have a high degree of genetic similarity. Two species in this group, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, are the main cause of human and bovine tuberculosis, respectively. M. bovis has a broader host range that includes humans; thus, the differentiation of mycobacterium is of great importance for epidemi...

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