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Spaces of Terror: Modeling Spatial Non-Stationarity in State-Level Repression
submitted by 14 minutes ago - Topic: Geography
Over the years, social scientists have amassed an impressive body of knowledge on state repression. Despite our improved understanding, this body of research implicitly assumes that the relationships between the independent variables and state sponsored repression are stationary over space. Current approaches, like OLS regression, cannot capture the spatial heterogeneity of the relationships an...



Riders’ application of rein tension for walk-to-halt transitions on a model horse
submitted by 15 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Rein cues have been used for millennia when controlling horses. Recent research has quantified the range of tensions exerted on the horse’s mouth by bit and rein apparatus under a variety of conditions as well as investigating the tension horses will freely tolerate. Given the importance of rein tension in terms of controlling horses and the potential for welfare issues arising from use of ap...

Study on activity pattern and incidence of stereotypic behaviour in captive tigers
submitted by 15 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
The present study examined daytime behaviour patterns of nineteen captive tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha, India. Behavioural observations of 1,254 hours were analyzed for target behaviours using instantaneous sampling and 1 minute sample periods. We found that these captive tigers spent about 23% of the daytime exhibiting stereotypic behaviour, i.e...

Reciprocal attention of dogs and owners in urban contexts
submitted by 15 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Laboratory-based studies have shown that paying attention to humans is an important determinant of dogs' behavior. However, there are no data on how gaze is deployed between dogs and owners in non-laboratory conditions. This study aimed at characterizing dogs’ and owners’ attention to each other in two urban contexts, characterized by a different type and density of dynamic stimuli. Short v...

A comparison study on the efficacy of SpinoMed(R) and soft lumbar orthosis for osteoporotic vertebral fracture
submitted by 16 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Osteoporosis is one of the major health problems in aging population and may lead to osteoporotic vertebral fracture that causes severe back pain and reduced functional independency. To compare the efficacy of SpinoMed® and soft lumbar orthosis at the subacute stage (the second and third weeks of disease onset) of the patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Prospective randomized tri...



Pharmacokinetics of firocoxib in preweaned calves after oral and intravenous administration
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral firocoxib in 10 healthy preweaned calves. Firocoxib (0.5 mg/kg) was initially administered i.v. to calves, and following a 14-day washout period, animals received firocoxib orally prior to cautery dehorning. Firocoxib concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Chan...

Plasma disposition kinetics of moxidectin after subcutaneous administration to pregnant sheep
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
The plasma kinetic profile of moxidectin (MXD) in ewes during the last third of pregnancy was studied after the subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight (bw). Two groups of sheep (n = 7) that were equally balanced in body weight were used. Group I (control) was maintained unmated, while Group II (pregnant) was estrous-synchronized and mated with fertile rams. Both groups were maintained ...


Detection, quantifications, and pharmacokinetics of ponazuril in healthy swine
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
A study on pharmacokinetics of ponazuril in piglets was conducted after a single oral dose of 5.0 mg/kg b.w. Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography assay with UV detector at 255-nm wavelength. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived by use of a standard noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Samples from six piglets showed good plasma concentrations o...

Excretion pattern of enrofloxacin after oral treatment of chicken broilers
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
The metabolism and excretion of enrofloxacin were studied when applied as oral solution to chicken broilers for five consecutive days. Sixty 9-day-old broilers were isolated within an intensively rearing poultry farm during enrofloxacin therapy (15.5 mg/kg per day). The excreta of the isolated broilers were collected daily, 9 days after therapy termination, for 13 consecutive days, and analyz...


Efficacy of gallium maltolate against Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a rabbit model
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
Antimicrobial efficacy against Lawsonia intracellularis is difficult to evaluate in vitro, thus, the effects of gallium maltolate's (GaM) were investigated in a rabbit model for equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). Juvenile (5–6-week-old) does were infected with 3.0 × 108 L. intracellularis/rabbit and allocated into three groups (n = 8). One week postinfection, one group was treated ...

Pharmacokinetics and bone resorption evaluation of a novel Cathepsin K inhibitor (VEL-0230) in healthy adult horses
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) and bone resorption biomarker [carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1)] analyses were performed following single and multiple oral dose protocols of a Cathepsin K inhibitor (VEL-0230) in horses. Outcomes included plasma and urine drug and CTX-1 concentrations. In the dose range study, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) doses were admi...


Rapid identification of mRNA processing defects with a novel single-cell yeast reporter
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
It has become increasingly evident that gene expression processes in eukaryotes involve communication and coordination between many complex, independent macromolecular machines. To query these processes and to explore the potential relationships between them in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we designed a versatile reporter using multicolor high-throughput flow cytometry. Due to it...

A versatile assay for RNA-binding proteins in living cells
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control RNA fate from synthesis to decay. Since their cellular expression levels frequently do not reflect their in vivo activity, methods are needed to assess the steady state RNA-binding activity of RBPs as well as their responses to stimuli. While electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) have been used for such determinations, their results serve at best as pr...

Mod-seq: high-throughput sequencing for chemical probing of RNA structure
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
The functions of RNA molecules are intimately linked to their ability to fold into complex secondary and tertiary structures. Thus, understanding how these molecules fold is essential to determining how they function. Current methods for investigating RNA structure often use small molecules, enzymes, or ions that cleave or modify the RNA in a solvent-accessible manner. While these methods have ...

The beta-actin mRNA zipcode regulates epithelial adherens junction assembly but not maintenance
submitted by 17 minutes ago - Topic: Biology
Epithelial cell-cell contact stimulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling to down-regulate branched filament polymerization-driven lamellar protrusion and subsequently to assemble linear actin filaments required for E-cadherin anchoring during adherens junction complex assembly. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that de novo protein synthesis, the β-actin 3' UTR, and the β-actin mRNA zip...

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