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Micronutrient Enhancement and Localization in Rice Grains under Influence of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
submitted by efonofla 30 minutes ago - Topic: Agriculture
One of the major problems faced by the world today is micronutrient malnutrition, particularly in developing countries. Because majority of the population residing in these countries cannot afford supplements, biofortification of staple crops with essential micronutrients can be a viable solution. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to evaluate the potential of plant growth-pro...



Pharmacological inhibition of MALT1 protease activity protects mice in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis
submitted by bregetti 1 hour ago - Topic: Health
The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is crucial for lymphocyte activation through signaling to the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Besides functioning as a scaffold signaling protein, MALT1 also acts as a cysteine protease that specifically cleaves a number of substrates and contributes to specific T cell receptor-induced gene expression. Re...

The mTOR kinase inhibitors polarize glioma-activated microglia to express a M1 phenotype
submitted by bregetti 1 hour ago - Topic: Health
Increased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is observed in numerous human cancers. Recent studies on the glioma kinome have identified several deregulated pathways that converge and activate mTOR. The available evidence on the role of microglia in CNS cancers would suggest a dual role, a tumoricidal role and -on the contrary- a role favoring tumor growth. In the present paper, ...

Rcor2 underexpression in senescent mice: a target for inflammaging?
submitted by bregetti 1 hour ago - Topic: Health
Aging is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation that contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little knowledge is currently available on the molecular processes leading to chronic neuroinflammation. In this context, recent studies have described the role of chromatin regulators in inflammation and longevity including t...

Transition from an M1 to a mixed neuroinflammatory phenotype increases amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 transgenic mice
submitted by bregetti 1 hour ago - Topic: Health
The polarization to different neuroinflammatory phenotypes has been described in early Alzheimer's disease, yet the impact of these phenotypes on amyloid-beta (Abeta) pathology remains unknown. Short-term studies show that induction of an M1 neuroinflammatory phenotype reduces Abeta, but long-term studies have not been performed that track the neuroinflammatory phenotype. Wild-type and APP/PS1 ...



Drosophila Sirt2/mammalian SIRT3 deacetylates ATP synthase beta and regulates complex V activity
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase β, the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial complex V, synthesizes ATP. We show that ATP synthase β is deacetylated by a human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)–dependent protein deacetylase, sirtuin 3, and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue, dSirt2. dsirt2 mutant flies displayed increased acetylation of specific Lys residues in ATP ...

Ankyrin-G palmitoylation and betaII-spectrin binding to phosphoinositide lipids drive lateral membrane assembly
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Ankyrin-G and βII-spectrin colocalize at sites of cell–cell contact in columnar epithelial cells and promote lateral membrane assembly. This study identifies two critical inputs from lipids that together provide a rationale for how ankyrin-G and βII-spectrin selectively localize to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lateral membranes. We identify aspartate-histidine-histidine...


Excess centrosomes disrupt endothelial cell migration via centrosome scattering
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Supernumerary centrosomes contribute to spindle defects and aneuploidy at mitosis, but the effects of excess centrosomes during interphase are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that interphase endothelial cells with even one extra centrosome exhibit a cascade of defects, resulting in disrupted cell migration and abnormal blood vessel sprouting. Endothelial cells with supernumerary centr...

Force on spindle microtubule minus ends moves chromosomes
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
The spindle is a dynamic self-assembling machine that coordinates mitosis. The spindle’s function depends on its ability to organize microtubules into poles and maintain pole structure despite mechanical challenges and component turnover. Although we know that dynein and NuMA mediate pole formation, our understanding of the forces dynamically maintaining poles is limited: we do not know w...


Direct kinetochore-spindle pole connections are not required for chromosome segregation
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes' kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced at the kinetochore and coupled...

AGO3 Slicer activity regulates mitochondria-nuage localization of Armitage and piRNA amplification
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
In Drosophila melanogaster the reciprocal "Ping-Pong" cycle of PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)–directed RNA cleavage catalyzed by the endonuclease (or "Slicer") activities of the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (AGO3) has been proposed to expand the secondary piRNA population. However, the role of AGO3/Aub Slicer activity in piRNA amplification remains to be explored. We show th...


Klar ensures thermal robustness of oskar localization by restraining RNP motility
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Communication usually applies feedback loop–based filters and amplifiers to ensure undistorted delivery of messages. Such an amplifier acts during Drosophila melanogaster midoogenesis, when oskar messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) anchoring depends on its own locally translated protein product. We find that the motor regulator Klar β mediates a gain-control process that prevents satur...

DNA damage-specific deubiquitination regulates Rad18 functions to suppress mutagenesis
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions encountered during replication are often bypassed using DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways to avoid prolonged fork stalling and allow for completion of DNA replication. Rad18 is a central E3 ubiquitin ligase in DDT, which exists in a monoubiquitinated (Rad18 Ub) and nonubiquitinated form in human cells. We find that Rad18 is deubiquitinated when cells are tr...

The general amino acid control pathway regulates mTOR and autophagy during serum/glutamine starvation
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
Organisms have evolved elaborate mechanisms to adjust intracellular nutrient levels in response to fluctuating availability of exogenous nutrients. During starvation, cells can enhance amino acid uptake and synthesis through the general amino acid control (GAAC) pathway, whereas nonessential cellular contents are recycled by autophagy. How these two pathways are coordinated in response to starv...

The SUN protein UNC-84 is required only in force-bearing cells to maintain nuclear envelope architecture
submitted by diondro 1 hour ago - Topic: Biology
The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of two evenly spaced bilayers, the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The Sad1p and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins and Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) proteins that interact to form LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complexes connecting the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton have been implicated in maintaining NE spacing. Surprisingly, the NE ...