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A verification of spatio-temporal monsoon rainfall variability across Indian region using NWP model output
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Geography
Evaluation of weather forecasting systems and assessment of existing verification procedures are essential to achieve desirable seamless rainfall prediction. Prediction of wet and dry spells is quite useful in agriculture and hydrology but very few attempts have been made so far to resolve the issue using numerical model output. Performance of five state-of-the-art global atmospheric general ci...



Precipitation changes due to the introduction of eddy-resolved sea surface temperatures into simulations of the “Pasha Bulker” Australian east coast low of June 2007
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Geography
Weather research and forecast (WRF) model simulations are used to investigate how the distribution of precipitation is related to the distribution of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during the life cycle of the Australian east coast low of 7–9 June 2007. The focus is placed on investigating changes caused by the introduction of complex ocean eddy and filament structures present in the Bluelin...

Inter-decadal shift of the prevailing tropical cyclone tracks over the western North Pacific and its mechanism study
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Geography
On the basis of observations and results from the combination of a statistical formation model and a trajectory model, the inter-decadal shift of prevailing TC tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) are examined. The contributions of the changes in large-scale steering flows and tropical cyclone (TC) formation locations to the observed inter-decadal shift are investigated and their relative ...

Impact of surface observations on simulation of rainfall over NCR Delhi using regional background error statistics in WRF-3DVAR model
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Geography
In this study, efforts are made to improve the simulation of heavy rainfall events over National Capital Region (NCR) Delhi during 2010 summer monsoon, using additional observations from automatic weather stations (AWS). Two case studies have been carried out to simulate the relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation over NCR Delhi in 48-h model integrations; one from 00UTC, August 20, 201...

A comprehensive HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement community intervention: A case study
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Health
We describe the implementation of a comprehensive HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement community intervention that focused on people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as people living close to them (PLC) from 6 designated groups. A holistic multiple case study design was used in urban and rural settings in the North West Province, South Africa. Purposive voluntary sampling was used to re...



Evidence-Based Screening for Low Bone Mineral Density in HIV-infected Men
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Low bone mineral density, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture risk, is an emerging clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Our evidence-based practice (EBP) project screened a convenience sample of 225 HIV-infected men for low bone mineral density (BMD) using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST); and, of those men, 173 were also screened by the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of th...

A Survey of Nurse-Initiated and -Managed Antiretroviral Therapy (NIMART) in Practice, Education, Policy, and Regulation in East, Central, and Southern Africa
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Health
In sub-Saharan Africa, nurses and midwives perform many HIV service delivery tasks, such as diagnosis of HIV and prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART), which used to be the responsibility of physicians. While this task shifting is critical to scaling-up HIV services in Africa, the extent of HIV task shifting is not well understood. A survey of senior nursing leadership teams from 15 Afri...


Depressive Symptoms and Social Support among People Living With HIV in Hunan, China
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Depressive symptoms are common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and poor treatment outcomes. Our study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in PLWH in one Chinese province. Data were collected from 496 PLWH between July 2009 and July 2010 at two HIV treatment sites in Hunan Province, ...

Exploring Cultural Beliefs About “That Sickness”: Grandmothers' Explanations of HIV in an Urban South African Context
submitted by 21 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The role of culture in community beliefs about HIV is important to understand, given poor adherence to treatment and the failure of prevention programs in some contexts. An exploration of such models may yield important insight into barriers to care, treatment-seeking paths, and intergenerational differences in cultural beliefs and practices. Our study aimed to understand South African grandmot...


Emerging inhalation aerosol devices and strategies: Where are we going?
submitted by 25 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Novel inhaled therapeutics including antibiotics, vaccines and anti-hypertensives, have led to innovations in designing suitable delivery systems. These emerging design technologies are in urgent demand to ensure high aerosolisation performance, consistent efficacy and satisfactory patient adherence. Recent vibrating-mesh and software technologies have resulted in nebulisers that have remarkabl...

Technological and practical challenges of dry powder inhalers and formulations
submitted by 25 minutes ago - Topic: Health
In 50years following the introduction of the first dry powder inhaler to the market several developments have occurred. Multiple-unit dose and multi-dose devices have been introduced, but first generation capsule inhalers are still widely used for new formulations. Many new particle engineering techniques have been developed and considerable effort has been put in understanding the mechanisms t...


Dry powders for oral inhalation free of lactose carrier particles
submitted by 25 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Dry powder inhaler (DPI) products have traditionally comprised a simple formulation of micronised drug mixed with a carrier excipient, typically lactose monohydrate. The presence of the carrier is aimed at overcoming issues of poor flowability and dispersibility, associated with the cohesive nature of small, micronised active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles. Both the powder blend and ...

Heating effect by perianth retention on developing achenes and implications for seed production in the alpine herb Ranunculus glacialis
submitted by 27 minutes ago - Topic: Forestry
Petals of the alpine, arctic perennial herb Ranunculus glacialis are retained also during seed maturation, as opposed to most species where the petals wither after they have contributed to insect attraction during anthesis. To assess the adaptive significance of perianth retention after anthesis for annual reproduction, we experimentally removed perianths of R. glacialis and explored its impact...

Development of the Brief Ageing Perceptions Questionnaire (B-APQ): a confirmatory factor analysis approach to item reduction
submitted by 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Background: This paper aimed to develop a short version of the 32-item Ageing Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ), a multi-dimensional measure based on Leventhal's self-regulation model. Ageing perceptions are a key area of interest for large-scale surveys of ageing populations. As these studies capture a broad range of health and social variables, included instruments need to be as concise as poss...

Which older people decline participation in a primary care trial of physical activity and why: insights from a mixed methods approach
submitted by 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Background: Physical activity is of vital importance to older peoples’ health. Physical activity intervention studies with older people often have low recruitment, yet little is known about non-participants. Methods: Patients aged 60–74 years from three UK general practices were invited to participate in a nurse-supported pedometer-based walking intervention. Demographic characteristics of...

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