Biology Agriculture Aquaculture Horticulture Postharvest Forestry Geography Environment Health





View All

Parvalbumin Cell Ablation of NMDA-R1 Causes Increased Resting Network Excitability with Associated Social and Self-Care Deficits
submitted by 7 minutes ago - Topic: Health
NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitatio...



Hippocampal–Prefrontal BDNF and Memory for Fear Extinction
submitted by 7 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Infusing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex is capable of inducing extinction. Little is known, however, about the circuits mediating BDNF effects on extinction or the extent to which extinction requires BDNF in IL. Using local pharmacological infusion of BDNF protein, or an antibody against BDNF, we found that BDNF in the IL, but not prelimbic ...

Changes in Intensity of Serotonin Syndrome Caused by Adverse Interaction between Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Serotonin Reuptake Blockers
submitted by 7 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Drug interaction between inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAOIs) and selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake (SSRIs) induces serotonin syndrome, which is usually mild but occasionally severe in intensity. However, little is known about neural mechanisms responsible for the syndrome induction and intensification. In this study, we hypothesized that the syndrome induction and int...

Distinct Effects of Repeated Restraint Stress on Basolateral Amygdala Neuronal Membrane Properties in Resilient Adolescent and Adult Rats
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mecha...

Acute Effects of Alcohol on Stimulus-Induced Gamma Oscillations in Human Primary Visual and Motor Cortices
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Alcohol is a rich drug affecting both the γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems. Recent findings from both modeling and pharmacological manipulation have indicated a link between GABAergic activity and oscillations measured in the gamma frequency range (30–80 Hz), but there are no previous reports of alcohol’s modulation of gamma-b...



Regulation of the Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortical Synapses by Endogenous Estradiol
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Recent studies suggest that low endogenous estradiol might be a susceptibility factor for anxiety and trauma-related disorders in women. Consistently, fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning critical for the management of anxiety symptoms, is positively correlated with endogenous estradiol levels. To understand the synaptic basis of the effect of endogenous estradiol on fear extinction, ...

FKBP5 Moderates Alcohol Withdrawal Severity: Human Genetic Association and Functional Validation in Knockout Mice
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Alcohol withdrawal is associated with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone, FK506-binding protein 5, that exerts negative feedback on HPA axis function. This study aimed to examine the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FKBP5 gene in humans and the effect of Fkbp5 gene deletion in mice on alcohol wit...


Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by aberrant patterns of amygdala-frontal connectivity to social signals of threat and at rest. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) modulates anxiety, stress, and social behaviors. Recent functional neuroimaging studies suggest that these effects are mediated through OXT’s effects on amygdala reactivity and/or amygdala-front...

Clozapine Acts as an Agonist at Serotonin 2A Receptors to Counter MK-801-Induced Behaviors through a βArrestin2-Independent Activation of Akt
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The G protein-coupled serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is a prominent target for atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine. Although clozapine is known to inhibit 5-HT2AR signaling through G protein-dependent mechanisms, it differs from classic GPCR antagonists, in that it also induces 5-HT2AR internalization and activates Akt signaling via a 5-HT2AR-mediated event. In this regard, clozapi...


Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Brain Structure
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter ...

Oxytocin-Augmented Social Cognitive Skills Training in Schizophrenia
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Impairments in social cognition are common in schizophrenia and predict poor functional outcome. The purpose of this proof-of-concept randomized, parallel group clinical trial was to assess whether intranasal oxytocin (OT), given before social cognitive training, enhances learning of social cognitive skills. Twenty seven male outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 6-week (12 session) ...


The Impact of MIR137 on Dorsolateral Prefrontal–Hippocampal Functional Connectivity in Healthy Subjects
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
A recent mega-analysis combining genome-wide association study data revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) exhibits the most significant association with schizophrenia. Other biological evidence also consistently suggests that MIR137 may have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. As the disrupted dorsolateral pre...

Contribution of Adenylyl Cyclase Modulation of Pre- and Postsynaptic GABA Neurotransmission to Morphine Antinociception and Tolerance
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Opioid inhibition of presynaptic GABA release in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) activates the descending antinociception pathway. Tolerance to repeated opioid administration is associated with upregulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. The objective of these studies was to test the hypothesis that adenylyl cyclase contributes to opioid tolerance by modulating GABA neurotransmissi...

The Neuroeconomics of Alcohol Demand: An Initial Investigation of the Neural Correlates of Alcohol Cost–Benefit Decision Making in Heavy Drinking Men
submitted by 8 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity’s consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how...

A Molecular Profile of Cocaine Abuse Includes the Differential Expression of Genes that Regulate Transcription, Chromatin, and Dopamine Cell Phenotype
submitted by 9 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Chronic drug abuse, craving, and relapse are thought to be linked to long-lasting changes in neural gene expression arising through transcriptional and chromatin-related mechanisms. The key contributions of midbrain dopamine (DA)-synthesizing neurons throughout the addiction process provide a compelling rationale for determining the drug-induced molecular changes that occur in these cells. Yet ...

  • 1