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Age-dependent differences in the strength and persistence of psychostimulant-induced conditioned activity in rats: effects of a single environment–cocaine pairing
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The aim of the present study was to determine the strength and persistence of cocaine-induced conditioned activity in young and adult rats. A one-trial protocol has proven useful for studying the ontogeny of psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization; therefore, a similar procedure was used to examine conditioned activity. On postnatal day (PD) 19 or PD 80, rats were injected with saline ...



Postnatal diisopropylfluorophosphate enhances conditioned vigilance in adult BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and alters expression of acetylcholinesterase splice variants
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The long-term effects of postnatal exposure to an organophosphate substance diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were examined on fear conditioning in adult mice. Immediate and long-term changes in the expression of synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) and readthrough acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) transcripts were explored, in view of reports relating expression of these splice variants to stress...

Γ-Aminobutyric acid neural signaling in the lateroanterior hypothalamus modulates aggressive behavior in adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-treated hamsters
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence (P27–P56) display highly escalated and mature forms of offensive aggression correlated with increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) afferent development as well as decreased GABAA receptors in the lateroanterior hypothalamus (LAH) – an area of convergence for developmental and neurop...

Reinforcer magnitude and rate dependency: evaluation of resistance-to-change mechanisms
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Under many circumstances, reinforcer magnitude appears to modulate the rate-dependent effects of drugs such that when schedules arrange for relatively larger reinforcer magnitudes rate dependency is attenuated compared with behavior maintained by smaller magnitudes. The current literature on resistance to change suggests that increased reinforcer density strengthens operant behavior, and such s...

Caffeic acid protects mice from memory deficits induced by focal cerebral ischemia
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Brain ischemia pathophysiology involves a complex cascade of events such as inflammation and oxidative stress that lead to neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. Caffeic acid (CA) is a natural phenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of this compound in mice subjected to a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, animals wer...



WS0701: a novel sedative–hypnotic agent acting on the adenosine system
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
To characterize the sedative and hypnotic profile of the novel adenosine derivative ((3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methyl diaconate (WS0701), we performed a variety of behavioural tests and investigated the influence of WS0701 on various sleep stages. In mice, WS0701 significantly increased the number of entries and time spe...

Characterization of a shortened model of diet alternation in female rats: effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on food intake and anxiety-like behavior
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
The prevalence of eating disorders and obesity in western societies is epidemic and increasing in severity. Preclinical research has focused on the development of animal models that can mimic the maladaptive patterns of food intake observed in certain forms of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at characterizing a recently established model of palatable diet alternation in femal...


Effects of Withania somnifera on oral ethanol self-administration in rats
submitted by eyoda86 24 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Recent evidence has shown that Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng), a herbal remedy used in traditional medicine, impairs morphine-elicited place conditioning. Here, we investigated the effect of W. somnifera roots extract (WSE) on motivation for drinking ethanol using operant self-administration paradigms. Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol (10%) by nose-p...

Decreased expression of the long non-coding RNA FENDRR is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer and FENDRR regulates gastric cancer cell metastasis by affecting fibronectin1 expression
submitted by daro38 25 minutes ago - Topic: Health
FENDRR is a long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) that binds to polycomb repressive complexe 2 (PRC2) to epigenetically regulate the expression of its target gene. The clinical role of FENDRR in carcinomas remains yet to be found. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine FENDRR expression in gastric cancer cell lines/tissues compared with normal epithelial cells/adjacent non-tumoro...


Pathogenesis and host defence against Mucorales: the role of cytokines and interaction with antifungal drugs
submitted by blockhiot 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Innate immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells and their respective receptors, plays an important role in host defences against Mucorales with differential activity against specific fungal species, while adaptive immunity is not the first line of defence. A number of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as cytokines and growth factors as well as certain antifun...

Mucormycosis in children: a study of 22 cases in a Mexican hospital
submitted by blockhiot 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
We present a single-centre, retrospective study (1985–2012) of 22 cases of mucormycosis in children. A total of 158 mucormycosis cases were identified, of which 22 (13.96%) were children. The mean age of the children was 10.3 years (range: 6 months–18 years), and 59% of the infections occurred in males. The rhinocerebral form was the main clinical presentation (77.27%), followed by the p...


Outbreak of Microsporum audouinii in Munich – the return of infectious fungi in Germany
submitted by blockhiot 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
After experiencing an unusually high number of Microsporum (M.) audouinii infections at our hospital within only a few weeks, we began to investigate and control an outbreak in Munich, Germany. Main goals of our health management were to treat infected persons, identify extent and form of transmission and to prevent new infections. We analysed data from structured interviews with patients and m...

Virulent strain of Lichtheimia corymbifera shows increased phagocytosis by macrophages as revealed by automated microscopy image analysis
submitted by blockhiot 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Lichtheimia corymbifera is a ubiquitous soilborne zygomycete fungus, which is an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The fungus can cause life-threatening diseases by attacking the lung during early stages of invasion and by disseminating during later phases causing systemic infection. Since infections have drastically increased during the last decades, it is a major goa...

Host-iron assimilation: pathogenesis and novel therapies of mucormycosis
submitted by blockhiot 27 minutes ago - Topic: Health
Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by organisms belonging to the order Mucorales. Although considered uncommon, mucormycosis has been steadily increasing in incidents for the last two decades. Mortality of the disease is unacceptably high despite antifungal therapy and surgical interventions. The lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the absence of rapid diagnostic...

Hypoxia-mediated CD24 expression is correlated with gastric cancer aggressiveness by promoting cell migration and invasion
submitted by maragon 30 minutes ago - Topic: Health
CD24 is a heavily glycosylated cell surface protein that is expressed in putative stem cells and is overexpressed in various human malignancies, yet the significant roles of CD24 in gastric cancer development are still elusive. We investigated the involvement of CD24 in gastric cancer aggressiveness, which is attributed to its heterogeneity. Cultured gastric cancer cells showed diverse expressi...